I used to rib him from time to time, but he was a kindred soul. I have so many updates to the Food Pages that I have not been able to post, so many photos of cane rat at Madame Mboka’s in Bangui, snake and other excellent game. I have to get to these.
The large number of migrants from conflict zones are arriving in Europe is expected to increase. Three factors appear to be the primary determinants of the flow: 1. severity of violence in areas of migrant origination, 2. proximity to areas of relative economic opportunity and 3. the economic means of the migrants. I apologize if this is intuitively obvious, but I want to focus on Sub-Saharan economic growth, job creation and the link to migration, even if most of these migrants do no originate from Africa. This post was also spurred by an email from a colleague who shared an IMF regional economic outlook report with an analysis of population age and job growth. The report was cautiously optimistic indicating that as the wealthier economies see their workforce age, their percentage of workers in key age brackets will decrease while Africa will see the number of workers in these age brackets continue beyond 2030. The period 2035-2060 projects Africa to be the only region adding significant numbers to the global workforce. The research underlines that trade and economic integration create an opportunity for African economies to increase per capital GDP. Policies and actions are needed by governments to assure outcomes on the more positive side. Sub-Saharan GDP growth is highly dependent on commodity prices. Linkages between extractive industries and indigenous businesses of all sizes are inadequate to create the number of jobs needed. Along with developing these linkages, other sources of economic growth that are needed: more productive jobs in manufacturing and services. Can countries in a commodity-dependent economy make the sustained, huge public investments needed to turn finite resources into more permanent resources? Can they “turn” gold, oil, land and water into more infrastructure and a better educated, healthier workforce fast enough? This is the prerequisite for achieving inclusive growth, and having the growing ranks of the African workers benefit from trade and economic integration in ways other than looking for the exits….
Growth poles have captured the imagination of the World Bank. The concept presents a framework upon which many of the Bank’s private sector development activities are designed. Like good frameworks for understanding private sector growth, economic development or the industrialization of countries, the concept is flexible and lends itself to tremendous diversity in its application from agricultural production and transformation zones like at Bagré in Burkina Faso all the way to the post-modern special economic zones of Southeastern China (Shenzhen, Zhuhai, all the rest…). The next growth pole being developed in Burkina Faso will be the Sahel Growth Pole in a region known for its gold mines and its animal husbandry sector.
The Djibo Livestock Market
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More power is needed to develop the North….
At the Bank, our private sector development focus in Burkina Faso concerns helping the government develop growth poles around tangible and intangible assets in well defined geographic areas. The Bagré Growth Pole is being developed around a 16MW hydroelectric dam. There is the potential to put 10,000-20,000 hectares under irrigation. We are financing irrigation and other economic infrastructure in the zone.
I am also developing another growth pole operation in the North/Sahel region.
In Zone du Bois, but you can find it all over Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, West Africa, the whole continent, the world.
The smoke, the diesel exhaust, the near-death collisions with motorbikes while waiting in line to get my meat..
I am leaving Almaty, and as I’ve accepted a position as the World Bank’s Senior Private Sector Development Specialist in Burkina Faso.
Almaty, July 31, 2012. The last photo...
In three years, Kazakhstan has a short distance to go to accede to the WTO. This will surely occur as Russia has become a member. The external tariffs will decrease below the current EurAsEC Customs Union levels.
Regional economic integration still faces challenges that keep broad-based, diversified economic growth from happening. Uzbekistan needs to adopt a liberal economic agenda for this to happen. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan’s poor relations need to improve. In the near term, I sense that some Central Asian countries have a taste to pursue negotiated regimes with large trading partners on a bilateral basis. Hopefully, policies will not adopt a “whatever comes to mind” approach, and increasingly embrace rule-based systems with proven economic benefits.
USAID’s economic development work in Central Asia is increasingly focusing on integrating Afghanistan into world markets via Central Asia or with Central Asian markets as an end unto itself.
Burkina Faso has some similar problems as a landlocked country dependent on its neighbors for reaching markets and a reliance on commodities. I will post more when I arrive….
Almaty Hills and Snow
Almaty BMW Z4
That is the question. It was put to me several times over the last few months as colleagues sought the best chance for integrating Afghanistan with larger neighboring markets: China, India, Pakistan, Russia, Kazakhstan etc. Looking at the pace of improvements in economic integration in Central Asia, I am hesitant to commit to one corridor or another. The pace of regional economic integration, improvements in supply chain performance and the modernization of how countries in the region trade evidences irregular progress over the past 10 years. The countries governments and capacity to reform are diverse, despite the need for similar kinds of reforms across South and Central Asia. Running trade facilitation projects in Central Asia has proved that opportunities need to be taken when and where they appear. Is one action going to encourage a major investment in transport infrastructure? Is the new chairman of Customs in Uzbekistan a reformer willing to speed up clearance of goods in and out of the Termez crossing? These incidences are difficult to predict, but, most often, are the drivers progress in areas like implementation of Single Window systems for import/export, adoption of best practices in border management, decreasing delays for transit cargoes and putting in place new systems that help Central Asian businesses make more money.
Corridors 5 and 6 are references to specific transport corridors on with the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program focuses.
Kazakhstan-built Tractors still in service
I’ve been busy running the Regional Economic Cooperation Project for USAID/Central Asia since I returned from India. The project is putting on some big trade facilitation events over the next couple of months. More hard-hitting analysis of how to implement economic reforms, global climate change and all things multilateral, financial and Central Asian to follow…
Morning Delhi Street Scene
USAID Central Asia's Export Partnership Initiative